Transformation of sentences means 4 types of changes in sentences found. They are as follows:
|1||Changing Voice (R-17) Rules to learn:|
|2||Changing Simple, Complex, Compound |
(R-17) Rules to learn:
|3||Changing Degrees (R-12) Rules to learn:|
|4|| Changing Sentences (Have 5 Parts) Rules to learn: |
a) Affirmative-Negative (R-15)
b) Affirmative-Interrogative (R-15)
c) Affirmative-Imperative (R-03)
d) Affirmative-Exclamatory (R-06)
e) Exclamatory-Affirmative (R-05)
**** Now the following 4 items will discussed gradually in details:
01. Changing Voice (R-17) Rules to learn: Voice: Voice is the form of the verb which indicates whether the subject does the work or something has been done to it. ক্রিয়া প্রকাশের ভঙ্গিমাকেই voice বা বাচ্য বলে। ক্রিয়ার প্রকাশভঙ্গি বলে দেয় কর্তা কাজটি নিজে করছেন, না কর্তার দ্বারা কোন কাজ সম্পন্ন হচ্ছে। অথবা Voice হলো verb এর গঠন যার দ্বারা subject নিজে কিছু করে বা অন্যের কাজ তার ওপর এসে পড়ে। সাধারনত 9টি Tense (Tin perfect continuous tense বাদে)এবং 5টি Sentence(Assertive,Interrogative,Imperative,Simple,Complex) এ Voice Change হয়ে থাকে।কোন বাক্যে main verb না থাকলে তার Voice Change হবে না। Voice Change এর পূর্বশর্ত হলো বাক্যে main verb থাকা।
Classification of Voice:
There are two types of Voices found in English grammar.They are as noted below:
(a) Active Voice ( প্রত্যক্ষ বাচ্য): যে sentence এ subject নিজে সক্রিয় বা active হয়ে কাজ সম্পন্ন করে সে sentence এ verb এর Active voice হয়।
Subject + verb + object.
Viz: I write the poem.
(b) Passive Voice (পরোক্ষ বাচ্য):
যে sentence এ subject নিজে কাজটি করে না বরং object এর কাজটি তার ওপর এসে পড়ে তখন সে sentence এ verb এর passive voice হয়।
Object + be verb + verb এর past participle+ by+ subject.
Viz:The poem is written by me.
Assertive Sentence of Voice:
’’Object ব্যাটা Subject হয়ে হি: হি: করে হাসে
Nominative লজ্জা পেয়ে by পরে বসে,
মূল Verb সর্বদা V3 হয়,
তার আগে চেপে বসে Verb To be মহাশয়।”
Viz: a) I call a doctor.= A doctor is called by me.
b) They buy pencils.= Pencils are bought by them.
c) It finished the works.= The works were finished by it.
Interrogative Sentence of Voice (4 rules):
Do/does/did+Sub+obj? দিয়ে শুরু হলে-
|Am/is/are/was/were+Sub+V3+by +obj ? হবে।|
|a) Do I call a doctor?|
b) Does he teach languages?
c) Did she like you?
| a) Is a doctor called by me?|
b) Are languages taught by him?
c) Were you liked by her?
|(02) Auv+Sub+V4+obj ? দিয়ে শুরু হলে-||Auv+Sub+being+V3+by +obj ? হবে।|
| a) Is he calling a doctor?|
b) Are they teaching languages?
c) Was she helping them?
| a) Is a doctor being called by him?|
b) Are languages being taught by them?
c) Were they being helped by her?
|By whom+Auv+Sub+V3+ ? হবে।|
| a) Who is calling a doctor?|
b) Who did the work?
c) Who has broken the glass?
| a) By whom is a doctor being called ?|
b) By was the work dome?
c) By whom has the glass been broken?
|By Wh.Word+Auv +V3+by+ obj ? হবে।|
| a) What has he done?|
b) When have you done the work?
c) How can you do this?
| a) What has been done by him ?|
b) When has the work been done by you?
c) How can this be done by you?
Imperative Sentence of Voice (7 rules):
|(01) Main Verb+Sub||Let+Sub+be+V3|
|a)Open the door.|
b)Take care of your child.
|a) Let the door be opened.|
b) Let your child be taken care of.
*** What is Simple Sentence:
Simple Sentence markers():
**** What is Complex Sentence:
|that,so that, till,until,unless||While,whether,before,after|
*** What is Compound Sentence:
**** Compound Markers/Co-coordinating Conjunction (24):
As well as,
Not only…but also.
On the contrary.
As a result.
****(02)Simple -Complex-Compound have (R-17):
He is too weak to walk.
He is so weak that he can not walk.
He is very weak and he can not walk.
|02||Enough to |
Viz: He is kind enough to help me.
| So…that |
Viz: He is so kind that he can help me.
| Very…and |
Viz: He is very kind and he can help me.
Viz: The sum is easy enough for me to solve it.
| So…that |
Viz: The sum is so easy that I can solve it.
| Very…and |
Viz: The sum is very easy and I can solve it.
Viz: The poem is too difficult for me to read.
| So…that |
Viz: The poem is so difficult that I can not read.
| Very…and |
Viz: The poem is very difficult and I can not read.
Viz: I came here to learn English grammar.
in order that
Viz: I came here so that I could learn English grammar.
went to…and so
Viz: I went to there so I could learn English grammar.
|06||In spite of,|
Viz: In spite of his poverty, he is honest.
Viz: Though he is poor,he is honest./Although he is poor,he is honest.
Viz: He is poor but honest.
Viz: Going home,I found him ill.
Viz: When I went home, I found him ill.
Viz: I went home and I found him ill.
Viz: By reading timely , you will pass the exam.
Viz: If you read timely, you will pass the exam.
Viz: Read timely and you will pass the exam.
Viz: Without reading timely,you will fail in the exam.
Viz: If you don’t read timely, you will fail in the exam.
| Imperative…and |
Viz: Read timely or you will fail in the exam.
Viz: Besides studying English,he took Arabic.
Viz: He who study English took Arabic.
|Not only…but also|
Viz: He not only study English but also took Arabic.
Viz: Instead of reading physics, he took chemistry.
Viz:He, who did not read physics took chemistry.
| Not only…but also |
Viz: He not only read physics but also took chemistry.
Viz: He ran away just after his seeing me.
|As soon as,|
Viz: As soon as he saw me , he ran away.
| And |
Viz: He saw me and at once he ran away.
Viz: I saw a flying bird.
Viz: I saw a bird which was flying.
| And |
Viz: I saw a flying bird and it was flying.
an account of
Viz: He could not come because of his laziness.
Viz: He could not come because he was lazy.
| And |
Viz: He was lazy and he could not come.
|15||At the time of,|
Viz: At the time of his reading, I was sleeping.
Viz: While he was reading, I was sleeping.
Viz: He was reading and thus I was sleeping.
Viz: It was Friday noon before my reaching there.
Viz: It was Friday noon before I reached there.
Viz: It was Friday noon and I reached there.
Viz: I was there in winter.
Viz: I was there when it was winter
Viz: I was there and it was winter.
***(04) Changing Sentences (Have 5 Parts) Rules to learn:
(01) Affirmative-Negative (R-15)
|Rules-01||Only/Alone=None but (for person)|
Only/Alone=Nothing but (for thing)
Only/Alone=Not more than/not less than (for age and number)
a) Only Ruma can read Quran.
=None but Ruma can read Quran.
b) He needs a pen only.
= He needs nothing but a pen.
c) She is only 10 years old.
=She is not more than 10 years old.